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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Database, Datasets & Tests

A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 7th edition.

Helpful Tip! URLs

Do you need to include the full URL?


When you are citing a subscription database do NOT include the full long URL.  

Rule: Subscription Database
: Since a subscription database item is only available if the reader has access, you should not include the long URL of the item. 
Do:  Do include the homepage URL of the database to show the reader the name of the publisher and how one would be able to access the item if they obtained  a subscription to the database.

Bad Example: Tuggy, M.L., & Gilliam, M. (2013, July 28). Knee Injury. Elsevier.!/

Good Example: Tuggy, M.L., & Gilliam, M. (2013, July 28). Knee Injury. Elsevier.

See: APA blog What to Use—The Full Document URL or Home Page URL?

Sample Citations - Data Sets

Data Set:

  • When a version number exists, include it in parentheses after the title.
  • The bracketed description is flexible (e.g., data set, data set and code book). 
  • In the source element of the reference provide the name of the organization that has published, archived, produced, or distributed the data set.






Unpublished Raw DAta

Unpublished Raw Data

  • The date for unpublished data is the year(s) of collection.
  • In the source element of the reference provide the source (e.g., a university), if known. 
  • Include a retrieval date only if the data set is designed to change over time (e.g., if the data are still undergoing collection).




Point-of-Care Database Records

Helpful Tip

  • When citing sources that you find from a Point-of-Care Database (e.g. Dynamed, FirstConsult, Epocrates, UptoDate) treat the record as if it was from an e-book entry. You may need to include a retrieval date if the information you viewed is likely to change over time.
    • Authors: If the entry does not list author(s) names, you should use the corporate author (i.e. Dynamed).
    • Dates: Look for the last updated or last revised date usually posted at the top or bottom of the record
    • Retrieved: Include the date you accessed the information

General Format

In-Text Citation:

(Author Surname, Year/last updated)


Personal or Corporate Author. (Last update if not known, put n.d.). Title of specific document. Publisher. Retrieved date from [if needed] URL database homepage

Example: DynamedPlus

In-Text Citation: DynamedPlus

(DynamedPlus, 2017)

References: Dynamed

DynamedPlus (2017, July 18). Diabetes mellitus type 2 in children and adolescents​. EBSCO. Retrieved August 3, 2017 from

Example: FirstConsult

In-Text Citation: FirstConsult

(Dietrich & Kreindler, 2015)

References: FirstConsult

Dietrich, A., & Kriendler, J.L. (2015, April 17). Asthma in Children​. Elsevier. Retrieved January, 15, 2016 from

Example: Epocrates

In-Text Citation: Epocrates

(Shah & Kantharia, 2017)

References: Epocrates

Shah, A.N., & Kantharia, B.K. (2017, January 23). Acute atrial fibrillation. Epocrates, Inc. Retrieved August, 2, 2017 from

Example: Pediatric Care Online

In-Text Citation: Pediatric Care Online

(Pediatric Care Online, 2017)

References: Pediatric Care Online

Pediatric Care Online. (2016, May 18). Kawasaki Disease. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved August 2, 2017 from

Sample Citations - Tests, Scales, & Inventories

Manual for a Test, Scale, or Inventory:

  • To cite a test, scale, or inventory, provide a citation for its supporting literature (e.g., its manual, which may be an authored or edited book, or the journal article in which it was published).
  • The title of a test, scale, or an inventory should be capitalized using title case whenever it appears in a paper. Although the test title may be italicized in a reference, in the text, the title of a test should appear in title case in standard (nonitalic) type. 





Test, Scale, or Inventory Itself

  • Cite the test, scale, or inventory itself only if a manual or other supporting literature is not available to cite; if a manual is available for a test, cite the manual, not the test.




Database Record for a Test

  • Test database records (e.g., records from PsycTESTS, the ETS TestLink collection, or the CINAHL database) typically provide unique descriptive and administrative information about tests; cite the database record if you use this unique information. Otherwise, cite the test's supporting literature, if available.